1. Nested : Keeping the Signature marks remain hiding, the sections of the books are assembled in the proper sequence for binding is called Nesting in binding process. This is also called nested. The signature mark is a letter, number or combination of either or both, which is printed at the bottom of the first page of each section of the book. Since each book of several pages will have several sections, it is to be ensured that the pages and sections are placed in the correct sequence order before binding. Therefore to help the binders gather the sections of the book in sequence an identification mark that tells the sequence like 1,2, 3, 4 or A, B, C, D etc are printed as signature mark, but at the same time the printed marks will remain invisible after the books are bound, lest it will mar the appearance of the book and therefore they are nested.
2. News Print : Paper made of mechanical pulp or wooden pulp. The Newsprint is a low quality paper meant for printing newspapers, weeklies and monthlies with mass circulation besides telephone directories, comic books, trade magazines etc. This paper is considered to be low quality paper in terms of strength and durability and has shorter life span . They are manufactured mostly in ‘off white color’ or ‘slightly brownish’ due to the use of wood in the pulp. However good quality newsprint paper is manufactured by bleaching the pulp with certain chemicals during the paper manufacturing process.
3. Newton Ring : This is one of the defects that occur during contact printing process like making negatives, positives or photo prints. The image will show irregularly shaped patterns, something like bubble or oil spill on the surface of the water. This is due to improper contact where in some amount of air remains between two contacts. Newton rings arise when two smooth surfaces like glass and film are in position during contact. This defect will be visible only when a film negative or positive particularly that of an halftone image is transferred by contact or in a photo print which is made and developed from the negatives. Note that the defect will vary in content and size with each print from the same negatives as the air block can change position . if the glass is cleaned and worked the same defect may continue to occur if the film or the photo paper used and the glass frame are too shiny or smooth surfaced. If the defect continues to come in the processing department, they try to switch over to optically coated glass frames which of course will cost bit more.
This problem also arises during scanning process. Due to invisible air bubble, the light from the enlarger or the exposing lamps refracts into a rainbow pattern as it pass through the surface such as glass or film. This will leave bubble like appearance in the processed material. Waves reflecting from two surfaces can interfere constructively and destructively and such an interference will produce a concentric ring pattern.
4. Nipping : In the book binding process, the folded sections are either sewed, stitched on sides or wire stitched. Since the folded edges of the sections will be bulgy at the back side (Spine) where the stitching takes place, it is necessary to remove the air from inside the sections that causes the bulge and make them lie flat. This is done by keeping the folded book ready for binding in hard-press tightly pressed giving hydraulic pressure to flatten the edges. Thus the process of destroying or knocking out the bulge of the back side of the book before sewing or stitching in binding is called Nipping which is a bindery term. Dictionary meaning of nipping is destroy.
5. Neutral pH : The pH scale is from 0 – 14 . The scale below 7 is called acetic and above 7 are alkaline. Therefore the range of 7 is called neutral pH. The pH plays an important role in many areas of printing. The main material the paper is mostly manufactured with pH values in acetic range to increase the stability, facilitate ink absorbency, drying and to improve the permanency for printing of archival records. The pH also plays vital role in Offset printing process where emulsification of the ink takes place due to the dampener solution becoming acetic. Pure water is neutral, with a pH of 7.0. When chemicals are mixed with water, the mixture can become either acidic or basic. Chemicals that are highly acidic are called reactive chemicals and can cause burns. These chemicals can cause severe burns. pH is measured by either test strips or special apparatus available in the market.
6. Negative: A process photographic film that records the originals in reverse format i.e the black areas in the original as transparent and the white and bright areas as black. In short, the term negative denotes a photographic image that reproduces the bright portions of the photographed subject as dark and the dark parts as light areas. A transparent plastic film surface is coated with different chemicals and material like metallic silver that changes their properties in invisible manner when exposed to some light source. The invisible change that takes place is due to the reactions of light . When treated with another chemical, the invisible changes will become visible to show the images in negative format.
Different types of films are produced by different manufacturers to reproduce good negative processed in different manner. When the image from the negative is transferred on to a plate and printed, they reproduce the image as per the original format. In the photo lithography and printing processes where blocks are made, unless a film negatives is prepared the printing process can not continue. The negative is not a term to represent processing the black and white originals alone, even the colored originals are processed to produce negatives in black and white. When the photographic camera films are processed, the processed negatives will show colored images but in negative format.
…………Additions to alphabet N to be continued under N/2